Exclusion principle and theLandauer-Buttiker formalism The Landauer-Buttiker formalism has been very successful in describingelectronic. Landauer-Büttiker formalism. Calculation of the electronic current flowing through a system due to application of external bias voltage is one of the most difficult. Landauer-Büttiker formalism. Examples. Farkas Dániel Gergely. Msc physics student. 1. Contents. Difference of potencials; Difference of temperatures.

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The dominant scattering landaue at room temperature is that of electrons emitting optical phonons. Ballistic conduction differs from superconductivity due to the absence of the Meissner effect in the material.

The size and distribution of these contact spots is governed by the topological structures of the contacting surfaces forming the electrical contact. Over a limited distance, the electron wave function will remain coherent.

This is because there is an energy to be landdauer to extract the electron from the medium work function. In mesoscopic physicsBallistic conduction ballistic transport is the transport of charge carriers in a medium usually electronshaving negligible electrical resistivity caused by scattering.

Ballistic conduction is not limited to electrons or holes but can also apply to phonons. Isotopically pure diamond can have a significantly higher thermal conductivity.

Ballistic conduction

Role of phonon energy and gate bias”. Such a transport regime has been found to depend on the nanoribbon edge structure and the electron energy. Thus the quantum conductance is approximately the same if measured at A and B or C and D.


Ballistic conduction bugtiker typically observed in quasi-1D structures, such as carbon nanotubes or silicon nanowiresbecause of extreme size quantization effects in these materials. Nanoelectronics Charge carriers Mesoscopic physics.

It is theoretically possible for ballistic conduction to be extended to other quasi-particles, but this has not been experimentally verified.

Phys. Rev. B 45, () – Exclusion principle and the Landauer-B\”uttiker formalism

Transport becomes statistical and stochastic. Different materials have different scattering probabilities which cause different incoherence rates stochasticity.

To get these characteristic scattering rates, one would need to derive a Hamiltonian and solve Fermi’s golden rule for the system in question. Thus, ballistic transport in a material is determined by how ballistically conductive that material is. Some kinds of scattering can only cause a change in electron direction, others can cause energy loss. Since the contacts and the GNR channel are connected by leads, the transmission probability is smaller at contacts A and B.

The specific problem is: Ballistic transport is observed when the mean free path of the electron is much longer than the dimension of the medium through which the electron travels.

Electrical contacts resulting in ballistic electron conduction are known as Sharvin Contacts. The electron alters its motion only upon collision with the walls. In particular, for surfaces with high fractal dimension contact spots may be very small.


For a given particle, a mean free path can be described as being the average length that the electron formalusm travel freely, i. Non-ballistic electrons behave like light diffused in milk or reflected off a white wall or a piece of paper.

For the 1D graphene nanoribbon field effect transistor GNR-FET on the right where the channel is assumed to be ballisticthe current from A to B, given by the Boltzmann transport equationis. Electrons can be scattered several ways in a conductor. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A comparison with light provides an analogy between ballistic and non-ballistic conduction.

Information about the state of the electrons at the input is then lost.

Heat conduction can experience ballistic thermal transport when heating size is larger than phonon mean free paths. Therefore, even in the case of a perfect ballistic transport, there is a fundamental ballistic conductance which saturates the current formxlism the device with a resistance of approximately Without scattering, electrons simply obey Newton’s second law of motion at non-relativistic speeds.