Authors of Kalileh Va Demneh By: Dr. Freydoon Arbabi. Back. Introduction Kalileh and Demneh is one of classic Persian literary masterpieces. It was called Kalileh and Demneh after two jackals who are the main characters of the first story. Kelileh Va Demneh on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Find out information about Kelileh va Demneh. anonymous collection of animal fables in Sanskrit literature Sanskrit literature, literary works written in Sanskrit.

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Authors of Kalileh Va Demneh By: Introduction Kalileh and Demneh is one of classic Persian literary masterpieces. It is mainly a translation of an Indian book, Penchatentra which means five chapters written in Sanskrit and published some years ago.

It also includes chapters form an Indian national epic book, Mahabahrata. The original translation was ddemneh from Sanskrit into Pahlavi by Barzuyeh. Finally Abdollah Monshi, among others, translated it into Persian from Arabic.

Each translator has added some text or chapter s of his own. Penchatentra Penchatentra is said to have been written by an Indian sage, Bidpai during the reign of a local ruler, Dabeshlim. Dabeshlim resisted the army of Alexander of Macadonia, but was defeated.

Eventually he rose up again and established independence for his land, although as a despot. Bidpai took it upon himself to seek an audience with the king, during which he tried to warn Dabeshlim about his autocratic behavior. By doing this he enraged the king and was therefore thrown in jail. Bidpai sugar coated his advice by presenting it as stories told by animals.

Pahlavi Version When Anushirvan, the Sasanid king of Persia, heard that there was a book advising kings he sought someone capable of translating the text.

He therefore ordered his aids to find a person who knew Sanskrit as well as Pahlavi, the Persian language of the Demmneh era. A young physician, Barzuyeh, was thus found and was sent to India to obtain kelilfh copy of the book and translate it, along with any other books of sociology or scientific value that he could find there. Upon completion of the book Barzuyeh was honored at the palace, and public readings of the book took place at kekileh court.

The translation included Penchatentra the first five chapters of Kalileh and Demnehas well as parts of the epic book Mahabahrata. It was called Kalileh and Demneh after two jackals who are the main characters of the first story of Penchatentra. It also included a preface by Bozorgmehr, the able prime minister of Anushirvan, and a biography of Barzuyeh. Anushirvan is a complex historical figure. He had sufficient wisdom to recognize the value keli,eh scientific and sociological books.

However, he also bears the infamy for ordering the massacre of the followers of Mazdak, a contemporary prophet who was demanding social reform following a major famine. This is considered a masterpiece of the Arabic literature. Arabs had produced many major poets, most of them before Islam. A well known poet of this era Amara al-Gheis who died in AD, 80 years before Hejreh has composed many beautiful poems about love and other earthly pleasures. It is ironic that such brilliant creative people have been dismissed by some Moslems, who have termed the period the Jahilieh ignorance.

In fact the spurt of Persian poetry that started after Islam when Dari language ielileh the common language in Iran may have had its inspiration in the Arabic poetic tradition. Dari had been the language used in the court of the Sasanids at Tisfun. After the Arab invasion of Iran it got mixed with Arabic to produce a rich language for poetry. Many of the early Persian poets seem to have been inspired by the great Arab poets and most meters used in their poems had been those of Arabic poetry.


The validity of this statement can be verified by the fact that no major poets in the Pahlavi language have been known. The majority of these poets were sufis, who did not accept the stigma that some Moslems had attached to poetry and music. However, in spite of an old poetic tradition, no major work of Arabic prose existed before the eight century AD.

In fact Kalileh and Demneh is still used as an exemplary book, and as a textbook demne many Arabic speaking countries. Kelilfh example Demneh, who masterminds the destruction of Cow, and innocent figure in the story, by making up stories that he tells the Lion kingis said to have paid for his mean deed at the end of the story.


His fingers had been damaged under torture ordered by the governor of Iraq because Dazuyeh had been advocating education for masses, an idea that was considered subversive.

However, this brilliant writer was murdered soon after the publication of Kalileh and Demneh, when he was only thirty six years old. He had produced some eight major works, including translation of the book of Mazdak from Pahlavi into Arabic and Resaleh Sahabeh. The latter seems to be aimed at Mansur, the Caliph, and is the blue print of a revolution. Abdollah had led an unsuccessful rebellion against Mansur.

His great uncles uncles of Mansur intervene on his behalf and Mansur agrees to forgive him. To reassure his uncles Mansur suggests a letter be written, that he would sign, promising not to keljleh Abdollah. Thus, he has him killed in a savage manner, by having his limbs cut off and burnt before he is finally put to death.

This ddmneh includes many insertions, by Monshi, of Persian and Arabic poems as well as verses from the Quran. There has also been a translation by Rudaki, the well known Persian poet of the 9th century AD, in the form of poems. Like most other work of Rudaki unfortunately this book no longer exists.

He was first appointed as minister of Eemneh Shah Ghaznavi, and then ordered murdered by the latter. Style of Kalileh and Demneh. Kalileh and Demneh is stories of an animal kingdom with numerous additional tales told to substantiate a statement story into story or to highlight important points. It also includes an unusual number of metaphors, parallel construction and numerous words of wisdom. To present a sample of the writing the writer could not locate an adequate English translation.

The samples provided on the Internet by the Indian Community in the U.

He seeks forgiveness of the readers for his lack of ability to convey the music and beauty of that text. The tricky Demneh comes to his confident and wise friend Kalileh complaining how his introduction lelileh the Cow to the Lion has caused his own loss of position near the Lion, as the Lion is now enjoying the company kdlileh the Cow.

He ddmneh thinking of a scheme to change the situation. Kalileh tells the following story which is several examples of how a vicious act can backfire and hurt the schemer himself. A Passage of Kalileh and Demneh. A pious man receives a gift of a beautiful robe from a king. A thief sees it and schemes to get it. The pious man realizes what had happened afterwards and goes to the city in search of the thief.


On the way he sees two rams fighting each other. They had injured one another and a fox is taking advantage of the situation sucking their blood. The rams charge at each other with their horns. They miss but one of the horns gets the keloleh and kills him.

By the time the pious man gets to the city it is night time. He starts looking for a place to stay. He cannot find one and in desperation ends up spending the night at a brothel. There he sees a pretty woman accompanied by a man. The madam had been mad at her for some time because of her callousness about business. The present sight makes her so furious that she decides to get rid of her that very night. She offers much wine to the girl and her companion till they are completely drunk and pass out.

Early morning the man leaves trying to find a better place to stay. He meets a shoemaker who invites him to his house. He asks his wife to make a meal for ke,ileh guest but apologized that he has an event to attend. She asks the match maker to tell her lover that her husband is away for the night and demndh have him come over. The shoemaker comes back drunk and sees the lover at the door.

His suspicion justified, he beats up his wife tying her to a post in the house. After the shoemaker falls asleep the match maker comes in complaining to the woman for keeping the lover waiting. The shoemaker wakes up and starts calling his wife. The match maker does not respond for fear of being discovered.

File:Kelileh va – Wikimedia Commons

Hearing no response the shoe maker becomes enraged. He then puts it in her hand telling her to send it to her lover as a present. He then goes kelieh to sleep. She then releases her and ties herself back to the post.

The pious man witnesses all this. The woman stays quiet for a while. Then she vx a loud prayer, begging God to cure her nose if she is innocent. The shoemaker asks her what all this raucous is about.


The shoemaker lights a light and sees that his wife is whole. He apologizes promising to repent and never raise his hand on her again without solid proof of wrongdoing. Meanwhile the match maker goes home all the while trying to come up with an explanation for her situation. She finds the opportunity when her husband wakes up asking for his toilet objects. He has to leave quickly for an important appointment. The match maker hands him his shaving blade only.

The husband gets furious shaking the blade at her for her lack of concern. The match maker demenh herself to the floor screaming. The startled husband cannot give a satisfactory answer. The judge rules to have him punished.