IPROUTE2 TUTORIAL PDF
Linux Advanced Routing Tutorial .. [router] ~ # cat /etc/iproute2/rt_tables # # reserved values # local main default 0 unspec. iproute2 is a collection of userspace utilities for controlling and monitoring various aspects of NetEm – Network Emulator · Linux networking commands using iproute2 – Tutorial for configuring IP address, Routing table, Neighbour table etc. IPROUTE2 Utility Suite Howto This docvumentation covers the ip utility from IPROUTE2. This utility is This includes all of the utilities in the IPROUTE2 suite.
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Get the latest tutorials on Uproute2 and open source topics. It is essential to have an understanding of basic networking tools when administering and troubleshooting Linux servers. While some tools are made primarily for monitoring, other low-level utilities are used to configure the network connection itself and implement default settings.
iproute2 – Wikipedia
Traditionally, a group of unrelated tools lumped together under the title of net-tools was used to do this. They were often packaged together to provide full functionality coverage, but their development and usage strategy varied from tool to tool. Because of inconsistencies, as well as halted maintenance, a collection of tools known under the umbrella moniker iproute2 has been used to replace these separate tools.
They have been developed in tandem to share syntax and operate together efficiently. In this guide, we will discuss how to use the iproute2 tools to configure, manipulate, and gather information about your network. We will be using an Ubuntu While the querying commands can usually be executed as an unprivileged user, root privileges must be used to modify settings.
Linux Advanced Routing Mini HOWTO
One of the most fundamental responsibilities of the iproute2 suite is to manage actual interfaces. Usually, the interfaces themselves will be named things like eth0eth1loetc. Traditionally, the ifconfig command was used to configure items in this area. Under the iproute2 system, the subcommands ip addr and ip link take care of these steps. With ifconfig, you could gather information about the current state of your network interfaces by typing the command with no arguments:.
To get an overview of the addresses attached to each interface, type ip addr in with no arguments:. In fact, the ip addr command is just an alias for the ip addr show command. If you are only concerned with the interfaces themselves and not the addresses, you can use the ip link command instead:. To get information about a specific interface, you’ll need to add the keyword show followed by the interface name:. To get statistics about how an interface is communicating, you can query statistics from each interface by passing the -s option to the link subcommand:.
So how do we find our routing table? The routing table contains kernel information about the paths to other network locations. We can print off the current routing table by typing:.
iproute2 tutorial for ifconfig, arp, route users
This shows us that the default route to the greater internet is available through the eth0 iprpute2 and the address We can iprouhe2 this server through that interface, where our own interface address is Now that you are familiar with how to get information about the interfaces and addresses associated with them, the next step is to find out how to modify their states.
The first step is to configure the interface itself. You can do this with the ip link subcommand again. This time, however, you pass the action set instead of show in order to modify values. Be careful not to accidentally bring down the interface that you are connected to your server through.
You can also use the ip link subcommand to set attributes about the interface. For instance, if you would like to change the multicast flag on or off for your interface, you can type:. If the interface you are configuring is down, you can adjust the interface name and the arp flag associated with the device:. To adjust the addresses associated with the interfaces, we again use the ip addr subcommand. Multiple addresses can be added to each interface without a problem. We can get rid of addresses with the inverse operation.
To delete a specific address associated with an interface, you can use it like this:. Optionally, you can omit the address, and the first listed address associated with that interface will be deleted. You can also adjust the routing of the server, using the ip route [add change replace delete ] syntax, but we won’t be covering this here, because most people will will not be adjusting this on a regular basis. IPRoute2 has some additional capabilities that we will not be able to discuss in-depth in this guide.
Instead, we will talk about what these are and what situations you may find them useful. The idea of IP routing rules is difficult to talk about because it is very situation dependent.
Basically, you can decide on how to route traffic based on a number of fields, including target address, source address, routing protocol, packet size, etc. We access this functionality by using the ip rule subcommand. The basic querying follows the general pattern of the other subcommands:.
These three routing rules are the default rules configured by the kernel. The first line matches any traffic and is used to route high priority traffic. The second line is the main rule that handles normal routing.
The last one is an empty rule that is used for post-processing if the rules above didn’t match the packet. Routing rules, as configured by the IPRoute2 software, are stored in a routing policy database, where the policy is selected by matching against sets of rules.
We can add or delete rules using the appropriate actions. You should not do this without knowing what you are doing however. Look at the man pages and search for ip rule for more information. Another thing that we’ll discuss briefly is the handling of arp information through these tools. The subcommand that deals with this information is called ip neigh. By default, this should at least list your gateway.
Arp is a protocol used to gather information about physical devices accessible through the local network. Basically, an arp request is broadcast over the local network whenever an IP address needs to be reached.
The matching IP address responds and then the local computer knows where to send information to that IP address. This information is cached on the local system for some time typically about 15 minutes to avoid having to query during follow up communication.
You should now have a fairly good idea of how to use the tools included in the iproute2 suite. While many guides and tutorials still refer to the old utilities, partly because knowledgeable system admins often grew up using the older tools, the commands discussed in this guide will be taking over in the coming years. It is important to familiarize yourself with lproute2 commands now before you find yourself troubleshooting tutorual on a system that has switched to these commands Arch Linux already fully converted in In general, they are much more consistent, and you can count on certain conventions being available in all of the commands.
The more you use these commands, the more they will become second nature. We hope you find this tutorial helpful. In addition to guides like this one, we provide simple cloud infrastructure for developers. Introduction It iproyte2 essential to have an understanding of basic networking tools tutoriak administering and troubleshooting Linux servers.
How To View Network Interfaces, Addresses, and Routes One of the most fundamental responsibilities of the iproute2 suite is to manage actual interfaces.
With ifconfig, you could gather information about the current state of your network interfaces by typing the command with no arguments: Local Loopback inet addr: To get an overview futorial the addresses attached to each interface, tutoorial ip addr in with no arguments: If you are only concerned with the interfaces themselves and not the addresses, you can use the ip link command instead: We can print off the current routing table by typing: How To Configure Network Interfaces and Addresses Now that you are familiar with how to get information about the interfaces and addresses associated with them, the next step is to find out how to modify their states.
For instance, we can bring a network interface up or down by issuing these: Tutorizl instance, if you would like to titorial the multicast flag on or off for your interface, you can type: We can add an address to a device by typing: To delete a specific iprouet2 associated with an interface, you can use it like this: Additional Capabilities of IPRoute2 IPRoute2 has some additional capabilities that we will not be able to discuss in-depth in this guide.
The basic querying follows the general pattern of the other subcommands: Conclusion You should now have a fairly good idea of how to use the tools included in the iproute2 suite.
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