Heterodoxus spiniger (Enderlein, ) on domestic dogs (Canis familiaris, L. ) from the city of Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil. Heterodoxus spiniger Enderlein, G. Usage: valid. Reference: Anopluren ( Siphunculaten) und Mallophagen 79 – Authors: Enderlein, G. Number: 2. Pages. Trop Biomed. Jun;29(2) The dog louse Heterodoxus spiniger from stray cats in Penang, Malaysia. Norhidayu S(1), Mohd Zain SN, Jeffery J, Lewis.

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Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Heterodoxus spiniger is an obligate ectoparasite of canids. Policies and guidelines Contact us.

Like other members of the family Boopiidaethese lice have two claws on each pretarsus, unlike species in the Ischnoceran family Trichodectidae which may parasitize domestic animals. Nearctic living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World.

It also infests wild canids. All other species in the genus Heterodoxus are parasites of kangaroos and wallabies in Australia and New Guinea. Neotropical living in the southern part of the New World.

Heterodoxus spiniger

This combination of pathological effects often greatly reduces productivity of a flock. Heterodoxus spiniger has an unusual evolutionary history. A revision of the Australian Boopidae Insecta: Phthiropterawith spinier on the Trimenoponidae. The egg hatches, and goes through three nymphal instars including molts in between the stages that resemble the adults, but are smaller and slightly paler in color.

Salt limits the ability of plants to take up water through their roots. It is usually found at the very proximal end of the hair shaft, close to the skin, often in the posterior dorsal region of the body Price and Graham, ; Roberts and Janovy, The three segments of the thorax are fused together, and the boundaries between them are indistinct. Epiphytes and climbing plants are also abundant. Irritation, pruritus, and restlessness cause loss of production. Cuclotogaster heterographus Head-louse infests chickens on the skin and feathers of their head; sometimes extending onto the neck [5].


Spiniged lice provide nutrients to their eggs before they are laid; then the females abandon them. Heterodoxus spiniger infests domestic dogs and other canids, also marsupial mammals. Goniocotes gallinae Fluff-louse commonly infests poultry, amongst the down feathers over most of the body. This species may need to be distinguished from Heterodoxus spiniger on dogs in countries where both species of chewing lice occur.

Trichodectes canis Dog chewing-louse infests domestic dogs on their head, neck and tail. Heavy infestations produce irritation and biting-stress, leading to restlessness and much self-grooming.

It has spread to tropical and sub-tropical regions of the Americas, and to Africa. Like other species in the suborder Amblyceraan adult Heterodoxus spiniger also has visible maxillary palps, and antennae are located within deep lateral grooves on the sides of the head.

Canine filariasis on Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands. This is because sand does not hold water well so little is available to plants.

A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. Like all lice, Heterodoxus spiniger experiences a gradual metamorphosis, starting with an egg nit. Antennae have 4 or 5 segments, but they are less visible than in the ischnoceran lice because they occupy an antennal groove in the head. Infestations are usually slight, but heavy infestations damage the plumage and cause restlessness leading to reduced productivity of poultry [4].


Amin and Madbouly, ; Price and Graham, They cause irritation, pruritus, restlessness, repetitive grooming, debility, and reduced productivity. Price and Graham review several cases where heavy infestations of these lice have negative effects on canine hosts, one of which sspiniger fatal. Roberts and Janovy, Jr. Treatment of an infestation of lice is with application of louse removal products such as Pyrethrin.

Heterodoxus spiniger ยท

Nelson, ; Price and Graham, To cite this page: By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Journal of Parasitology This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.

Heterodoxus spiniger feeds on the skin of canines. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands. These lice feed on feathers and underlying skin over most parts of their host’s main body.

Infestations with the actively mobile M. Classification Kingdom Animalia animals Animalia: These mandibles also are used to grip onto hairs or feathers, and there is a groove in the ventral surface of the head to fit hairs or feather shafts.

Dipetalonema reconditum Grassi, from the dog with a note on its development in the flea, Ctenocephalides felisand the louse, Heterodoxus spiniger.

This louse is an intermediate host of the tapeworm of dogs, Dipylidium caninum. They also retain vestiges of eyes on the lateral sides of the head Price and Graham,