Pathobiology of Heterakis gallinarum mono-infection and co-infection with Histomonas meleagridis in layer chickens. Schwarz A(1), Gauly M, Abel H, Daş G . We investigated whether density related effects are directly controlling lifetime fecundity of Heterakis gallinarum. Daily total numbers of H. infecting Brazilian turkeys are reported. The intestinal nematode Heterakis gallinarum appeared with a prevalence of 70% in the infected birds.

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Ethiopian living in sub-Saharan Africa south of 30 degrees north and Madagascar.

Heterakis infections are not very pathogenic for poultry. Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, galliinarum height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. These eggs can remain infective in the birds’ litter and the environment for one year and longer and may survive slight frost. Predilection site of adult Heterakis worms is the cecum.


Found on all continents except maybe Antarctica and in all biogeographic provinces; or in all the major oceans Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific. While ADW staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot gallinarrum endorse the contents of references beyond our control. Their eggs are found to live for years in soil making it difficult to eliminate H.


Histomonas meleagridis causes histomoniasis, more commonly known as blackhead disease, in turkeys that have ingested H.

Earthworms and houseflies are considered paratenic hosts, as they can ingest the egg in feces and a juvenile may hatch in tissues, which stays dormant until eaten by birds.

Anderson, ; Lund, Kaufmann, ; Olsen, Other Physical Features ectothermic heterothermic bilateral symmetry Sexual Dimorphism female larger Range length 7 to 15 mm 0. The parasite is a diecious species with marked sexual dimorphism. Saunders Ltd, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, p. Adult female and male cecal worms differ in length, with the female 10 to 15 mm generally being larger than the male 7 to 13 mm.

Earthworms can serve as paratenic hosts for juveniles, allowing them to move from the soil to a bird’s gut. Heterakis gallinarum is a parasite of galliform birds, feeding upon their cecal contents. As in other nematodes, H.

Heterakis gallinarum – Wikipedia

The Animal Diversity Web is an educational resource written largely by and for college heterakiw. In addition, rearing the birds on hardware cloth assists in the elimination this parasite. Labial sense organs of the nematode, Heterakis gallinarum.

All these measures are especially important for young birds, particularly for turkeys, which are likely to suffer more from Hfterakis infections. Anderson, ; Olsen, Within the egg, the larvae develop to the infective second stage. Embryos are stored in the female uterus until their release into the host’s feces.


Heterakis and Histomonas infections in young peafowl, compared to such infections in pheasants, chickens, and turkeys. In egg-laying hens, heavy infection significantly reduces egg production. Primary infections hetrrakis usually not apparent.

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Implications for survival of H. Once eaten, the egg travels through the digestive system of the host until it reaches the intestine where it hatches. Alae, which run almost the entire length of the body, are ridges formed by the thickening of the cuticle that may act as receptors for molecules which stimulate reproduction.

ADW doesn’t cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. In addition under microscopychronic diffuse typhlitishaemosiderosisgranulomas with necrotic center in the submucosa and galljnarum in the submucosamuscular and serosa associated with immature H.

Adult female worms galliharum the small intestine pass eggs with the feces about per day per female! Anderson, ; Olsen, Reproduction Like most other nematode species, H.