Transcript of OVER KİSTLERİ. BELİRTİLER: * çoğu zaman belirti vermezler. Aşağıdaki belirtilerden herhangi biri veya birkaçı bir arada. Sonuç: Fetal over kistleri her geçen gün daha çok tanı alan abdominal lastik İadelerdir. Bu kisderin büyük çoğunluğu fonksiyonel kisderdir. Kistin boyutu ve. Sonuç: Fetal over kistleri her geçen gün daha çok tan› alan abdo- minal kistik kitlelerdir. Bu kistlerin büyük ço¤unlu¤u fonksiyonel kistlerdir. Kistin boyutu ve.

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Abstract Cystic diseases in the female pelvis are common. Cysts of the female genital tract comprise a large number of physiologic and pathologic cysts.

Female Genital Tract Cysts

The majority of cystic pelvic masses originate in the ovary, and they can range from simple, functional cysts to malignant ovarian tumors. Non-ovarian cysts of female genital system are appeared at least as often as ovarian cysts.

In this review, we aimed to discuss the most common cystic lesions the female genital system. European Journal of General Medicine. In order to avoid unnecessary therapy or treatment delay, in most cases, it originates in the ovary. Congenital Mullerian paramesonephric duct anomalies If the uterine horn becomes obstructed, it may become dilated and filled with fluid or blood products and thus mimic a cystic pelvic mass such as a non-communicating rudimentary horn with uterus unicornis 1.

Congenital uterine cysts such as Wolffian duct mesonephric cysts C. Mullerian duct cysts D. fonkslyonel

OVER KİSTLERİ by sema özden on Prezi

Adenomyosis Adenomyosis is a common, nonneoplastic condi tion that affects menstruating women, particu larly those who are multiparous. In cystic adeno myosis, lesion size varies, and lesions may occur anywhere within the myometrium 1. Cystic degeneration of intrauterine leiomyoma An exophytic or pedunculated leiomyoma also may mimic a cystic adnexal mass if cystic degeneration is present. Cystic adenomatoid tumor Cystic changes of adenomatoid tumors are extremely rare, and this tumor is found subserosally in the posterior fundus or near the cornua.

The wall of the cystic adenomatoid tumor is lined with flattened cuboidal epithelium, and this epithelial cells show immunopositivity for cytokeratin and calretinin 2. Parasitic cysts such as echinococcal cyst J. A nabothian cyst is a common incidental finding that is usually located in the uterine cervix where one would find endocervical glands. Submucosal layer of the cervix is the most common location of these cysts, rarely they are seen deeply into the cervical wall.

Nabothian cysts may occur by the inflammation and reparative processes of chronic cervicitis, following minor trauma or childbirth.

Anechoic cystic structures are the ultrasonographic apperances of these cysts. Adenoma malignum minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of mucinous type or other glandular malignant cervical lesions can mimic nabothian cysts, but the latter are usually located deeper in the cervix 3,4.

Generally, nabothian cysts do not require any therapy. If the lesion character is not clear and malignancy cannot be ruled out and if the patient relief from pain or a bothersome feeling of fullness in the vagina, surgical intervention is needed A specific type of nabothian cyst. Characterized by complex multicystic dilatation of endocervical glands 3.

Uterine cervicitis is one of the most common gynecologic diseases. Symptoms or signs of acute cervicitis are a tenacious jellylike, yellow, or turbid discharge and a sensation of pelvic pressure or discomfort 3. Located in the endocervix and superficial layer of the cervical wall.

Frequently seen in women who use oral contraceptive agents and women who are pregnant or postpartum 3. This rare localization may be totally asymptomatic or associated with nonspecific findings like postcoital or intermenstrual bleeding.


The classic strategies of diagnosis and management involve colposcopy and excision 6. Adenoma malignum, which is also called minimal deviation adenocarcinoma, is known to be a rare variant of well-differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix, which is characterized by multilocular cystic lesions extending from the endocervical glands to the deep cervical stroma 7.

Cystic lesions of the female reproductive system. True cystic lesions of the vagina originate from vaginal tissues but lesions arising from the urethra and surrounding tissues can present as cystic lesions in the vagina as well 9.

The incidences of cyst types in decreasing order are as follows: Vaginal cysts are most common in the third and fourth decades 9, Through physical examination the lesion should be assessed for location, mobility, tenderness, definition smooth versus irregular and consistency cystic versus solid 9. Imaging by means of ultrasound, voiding cystourethrogram VCUGcomputerized tomography CT or magnetic resonance imaging MRI may be required to characterize the lesion further 9.

Mullerian Cysts Mullerian duct cysts MDCs are uncommon pelvic cystic lesions, with the peak clinical incidence between the third and fourth decades of life.

They usually present as small, midline, cystic masses with no symptoms and require no treatment. Occasionally, a mullerian cyst may become large enough that symptoms will warrant excision Gartner s Duct Cysts Gartner’s duct cysts are cystically dilated wolffian duct remnants and these cysts are usually located along the anterolateral vaginal wall. Gartner s duct cysts can also be associated with abnormalities of the metanephric urinary system 9. Skene s Duct Cysts Skene s paraurethral glands are bilateral, prostatic homologues located in the floor of the distal urethra.

Obstruction of the ducts, presumed secondary to skenitis most commonly gonorrheacauses formation of cysts 9. Benign, asymptomatic; if large, may cause urethral obstruction and urinary retention 3. Bartholin s Duct Cysts Bartholin s glands are located bilaterally at the base of the labia minora and drain through 2- to 2.

Bartholin s duct cysts, the most common cystic growths in the vulva, occur in the labia majora. Two percent of women develop a Bartholin s duct cyst or gland abscess at some time in life 12, These benign cysts usually occur in women who are in reproductive years Obstruction of the distal Bartholin s duct may result in the retention of secretions, with resultant dilation of the duct and forma- Eur J Gen Med ;9 Suppl The cyst may become infected, and an abscess may develop in the gland.

If the cyst becomes infected, induration usually is present around the gland, and walking, sitting, or sexual intercourse may result in vulvar pain. Treatment is by incision and drainage. Insertion of a Word catheter, gauze wick or rubber drain may also effect good drainage Cysts of the Canal of Nuck Hydrocele: The processus vaginalis, also referred to as the canal of Nuck, is a rudimentary peritoneal sac that accompanies the round ligament through the inguinal canal into the labia majora.

Cysts of the canal of Nuck are found in the superior aspect of the labia majora or inguinal canal 9. Urethral caruncles present as localized, red, friable lesions at the urethal meatus. They are generally seen in the postmenopausal women, and they most likely represent ectropion of the urethral wall secondary to postmenopausal regression of the vaginal mucosa 9.

A urethral diverticulum likely forms as a consequence of infected periurethral glands or cysts rupturing into the urethral lumen. Urethral diverticula are usually found on the anterior vaginal wall along the distal two-thirds of the urethra 9. These are localized, painless, and easily confused with sebaceous cysts. Most of these cysts are asymptomatic, treatment is by simple excision 9. Usually they mimic other, more frequently encountered lesions. Not always they have the typical symptoms of endometriosis and there diagnosis is rare determined before the surgical procedure and hystopathological examination.


A detailed anamnesis, thorough clinical examination and additional methods cystoscopic. Management consists of a surgical removal of the lesions, hormonal suppression of the ovarian function and, by all means, following up the patients for appearance of a recurrence or of a lesion de novo If present with an ectopic ureter, may present as a cystic vaginal mass.

Hydrosalpinx is a common adnexal lesion that may occur either in isolation or as a component of a complex pathologic process eg, pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis, fallopian tube tumor, or tubal pregnancy that leads to distal tubal occlusion. Hematosalpinx results from obstruction and dilatation of the fallopian tubes by blood products.

It most commonly occurs in the context of endometriosis, although a tubal ectopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory disease, adnexal torsion, malignancy, and trauma also may cause tubal bleeding 1, Pyosalpinx is more likely to be bilateral, with fal lopian tube wall thickening, thickened uterosacral ligaments, edema of the presacral fat, and smallbowel ileus.

Pelvic inflammatory disease is one of the most common causes of acute pelvic pain; it is important to differentiate pelvic inflammatory disease from ovarian malignancy, adnexal torsion, and acute appendicitis 1. Peritoneal inclusion cyst are seen in the serosa of the tube anda re related to the frequent irritations that plague the area. They arise from the mesosalpinx the superior, free border of the broad ligament which invests the fallopian tube.

Two types of paraovarian cyst A. Hydatid cyst of morgagni: These are a common finding at laparatomy.

They are paramesonephric in origin. They are usually small and under rare circumstances may undergo torsion. Such cysts can be diagnosed at any age or stage of a woman’s life, and detected as early as the fetal stage or as late as the postmenopause. Large cysts, multiloculi, septa, papillae and increased blood flow are all suspected signs of neoplasia.

Benign Ovarian Cysts 1.

Follicle cyst is found at mid cycle and its size ranges up to 25 mm. Theca tonksiyonel cysts fonksiynoel hyperstimulation cysts are associated with abnormal high levels of bhcg human chorionic gonadotropine as in multiple gestations, trophoblastic disease and most commonly due to pharmacologic hyperstimulation Borderline Ovarian Cysts 1. Malign Ovarian Cysts Cystic ovarian tumors are gonksiyonel on the basis of tumor origin as epithelial germ cell sex cord stromal tumors, unclassified and metastatic tumors Table 2.

The subtypes of epithelial tumors include serous, mucinous, endometrioid and clear cell tumors. Classification according to the origin due to ovarian tumors 1. Epithelial ovarian tumors a. Germ cell tumors a. Endodermal sinus tumor c. Sex Cord-stromal tumors a. Sex cord tumor d. Sex cord tumor with annular tubules 4. Nonovarian cystic lesions of the pelvis. Intramyometrial uterine cysts with special reference to ultrastructural findings: J Obstet Gynaecol Res ;37 3: